As the world becomes more economically integrated, increasing numbers of problems arise that are best handled through international treaties and transnational regulatory structures.4 For example, there have been concerns regarding the safety of products shipped from developing countries. These concerns have involved manufactured products, but have been particularly evident with food. Numerous examples can be found. The Japanese “discovered high levels of pesticides in imported spinach,” and U.S. “pets died from eating [imported] pet food contaminated with toxic chemicals.” In France, pesticides were discovered in fish imported from Africa, prompting the French government to suspend the importation of all fishes from Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania. This suspension was upheld by the French Council of State which held that it was impossible to trace the origin of imported fishes, and therefore that it was permissible to forbid the importation of all fishes from the affected countries. Between the U.S. and the European Union, there have been disputes regarding U.S. beef laced with natural and synthetic hormones.

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