Margaret Allars


This Article explores the scope for the development of a bias test applying to international tribunals. In the absence of a developed test in any such tribunal, an obvious source of jurisprudence is the case-law on Article 6(1) of the European Convention, which the European Court of Human Rights applies to domestic tribunals of member states. The requirement of impartiality in Article 6(1) has remained an abstract concept, slowly evolving on the foundation of common law maxims accepted as its rationale. While United Kingdom courts claim that their recent renovation of the common law test of apparent bias is the result of the vertical effect of Article 6(1) jurisprudence, the influence appears to be in the reverse direction. By contrast, the United States constitutional and statutory tests of bias United States make no claim to influence or be influenced by Article 6(1), yet draw upon the same common law maxims. The ground shared by the bias tests under Article 6(1), in the United Kingdom and the United States, suggests the potential for development of a global test.

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