Since the enactment of the Education Amendments of 1972, a major issue facing the National Collegiate Athletic Association ("NCAA") and its member schools has been the applicability of Title IX of the Amendments to those organizations. Title IX provides that no organization that operates educational programs may discriminate on the basis of sex if that program receives federal financial assistance Like many other federal antidiscrimination acts, the main debate under Title IX involves when a particular organization can be deemed to be "receiving" federal financial assistance. While the majority of NCAA member schools receive federal funds, the NCAA as an entity has never been held to be a recipient of federal funds and as such has not been held to the standards established in Title IX.

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