In the past, landowners were sovereign over their land, and they were immune from liability for accidents that occurred on their land.2 One doctrine that reflects this limited liability is the open and obvious rule, which states that landowners have no duty of care to protect someone on their premises from an open and obvious condition The traditional rule has recently been modified in many jurisdictions to disallow a landowner from asserting an open and obvious condition as a complete defense.4 The modified version holds occupiers liable if they reasonably could have anticipated that the invitee would encounter the danger despite the fact that it was open and obvious.

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