African-American scholar and statesman W.E.B. DuBois "predicted in 1908 that the question of this century would be the 'color-line,' meaning the relations between the white and African-American races." The Supreme Court of the United States has now decided in Adarand that any such program, whether federal, state, or local, must be analyzed with strict scrutiny to determine if it violates the Equal Protection Clause. In so doing, the Court dramatically changed the landscape of affirmative action programs in this country.

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