In Cruzan v. Hannon, the Missouri Supreme Court declined to let Nancy Cruzan's father discontinue her tube feedings. The court insisted on clear and convincing evidence of her wishes and was unsatisfied that proof of this kind had been presented in her case.' In addition, it refused to defer to her family or to consider her "quality of life." On June 25, 1990, the United States Supreme Court affirmed the Missouri Supreme Court's decision. Since Cruzan, public demand for living wills has exploded.
Philip G. Peters Jr., John W. Ely, and Steven C. Zweig,
Physician Willingness to Withhold Tube Feeding after Cruzan: An Empirical Study,
57 Mo. L. Rev.
Available at: https://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/mlr/vol57/iss3/2