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Abstract

Since the goal is to compare the European experiments with those adopted in the United States, the paper is structured around that comparison. This part introduces the issues and the methodology. Part II provides a brief description of the case studies, addressing similarities and differences among the European countries. Part III then discusses several mechanisms considered necessary to participation in the United States that have been rejected by the agencies in the European countries. Part IV describes the parallels, though it also points out differences between the countries individually, as well as between them and the United States collectively. Part V describes mechanisms that go beyond the prevailing practice in the United States. The paper concludes that the European agencies made substantial efforts to increase their transparency and increase participation, but the content and the success of the efforts varied across countries, strongly influenced by the institutional structure surrounding the agencies.

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