Carl M. Moore


The Negotiated Investment Strategy (NIS) was created by the urban affairs program at the Kettering Foundation as a vehicle for cities to shape their own future. The creators of the NIS, in the late 1970's, observed that while most major cities needed help, such help was hard to come by. Three reasons account for this. First, the assistance that was available to cities, particularly from the federal government, was often in the form of categorical grants, and it was difficult to tailor the assistance to the particular needs of the city. Second, there was a great deal of duplication of existing programs and a lack of coordination between them. Finally, cities had not discovered how they might capitalize upon their own assets, particularly: the facilities that were in place, the city's infrastructure, and the commitment to the city by people from both the public and private sectors



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