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In this Article, I describe a structure capable of accommodating growing caseloads in a manner consistent with basic values of appellate justice. Before doing so, I sketch in Part I the structural evolution of the federal courts. Part II describes the current pressures on the courts of appeals, while Part III examines the effects of internal reforms on the quality of appellate justice and the development of a coherent body of national law. Next, in Part IV, I posit requirements for the federal courts' third century. Part V reviews major proposals to address the caseload crisis in the courts of appeals.

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