Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 1999


Time plus energy equals learning. Efficient time-management skills are critical for students and professors alike. Allocating realistic amounts of time means effective learning for students and effective teaching for faculty. How an institution defines time expectations for students, faculty, administrators, and other professional staff can establish the basis for high performance for all. The fifth principle for good practice in undergraduate education is almost a truism: good practice emphasizes time on task. In their original statement of the seven principles, Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson expressed this as a mathematical formula: “Time plus energy equals learning.” Time on task is a principle that applies to all persons within, and all components of, an institution. Any consideration of the principle within the context of legal education therefore should consider student time on task (learning), faculty time on task (teaching), institutional time on task (devoted to teaching and learning), and time on task within legal education (focusing law schools on teaching and learning).



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