A juvenile adjudication of guilt has far more drastic consequences than existed just ten years ago ... Some of these consequences may not be apparent for a number of years, but their possibility should be anticipated, fully considered, and planned for, wherever possible. Under zero tolerance, students are suspended, expelled, or referred to juvenile authorities or some combination thereof for specified offenses. Zero tolerance policies punish students harshly regardless of the severity of the infraction, the existence of mitigating circumstances, or the context in which the conduct occurred. Part II discusses the origin and evolution of zero tolerance policies, as well as the various legal challenges to the policies. Part III discusses the concept of a citizen and how students subjected to zero tolerance policies are destined to become the next generation of disenfranchised citizens. Finally, Part IV offers some prescriptions on how to prevent the creation of a new generation of disenfranchised citizens.
S. David Mitchell, Zero Tolerance Policies: Criminalizing Childhood and Disenfranchising the Next Generation of Citizens, 92 Wash. U.L. Rev. 271 (2014)